Surveyor profession

A surveyor is a specialist who performs prospecting, topographic, alignment, design and other engineering work on the ground to describe the parameters of the relief, draw up maps or check the state of an architectural structure. On the basis of the measurements obtained, he makes calculations, designs and models, prepares as-built documentation.

Narrow specialization of geodesy

Depending on the range of tasks to be solved, surveyors can be divided into two large groups: theorists and practitioners. The former are engaged in research activities, the latter are engaged in practical issues.
Narrow specializations of surveyors-practitioners employed in the industrial sphere:
Geodesist engineer - carries out topographic and geodetic surveys, makes alignment bases, prepares profiles and plans, performs design-related work.
Cadastral engineer - solves issues related to land management, marking of land boundaries, land surveying of private plots and state registration of ownership, paperwork.
Topographer - makes topographic plans and maps using a variety of techniques.
There is also a professional grading, depending on the skill level. Secondary specialized institutions train surveyors-technicians, and higher - engineers. To conduct research work, it is necessary to complete postgraduate studies.


Places of work

The position of a surveyor is present in construction and land management companies, bureau of technical inventory, municipal authorities, agricultural enterprises and utilities. Specialists in the field of geodesy also work at seismological stations and mining enterprises, in design institutes and organizations involved in the preparation of topographic plans, maps and navigation systems.

History of the profession

The first land surveyors appeared at the dawn of civilization - to measure areas, they used special devices that resemble huge compasses. Each country had its own units of measurement; in Russia, spans, elbows, sazhens, arshins and fields (later - versts) were used to indicate sizes and distances. Physical endurance, accuracy and good counting skills were required of surveyors.
Ancient engineers performed more labor-intensive tasks: they made calculations when building ancient temples, fortresses and other structures, taking into account the characteristics of the terrain. They could design load-bearing walls, define slopes, set out axes, and perform a number of other complex mathematical operations. Measuring instruments were gradually improved, becoming more accurate, going from ancient primitive devices to modern levels, theodolites and total stations.
With the development of the economy and the emergence of new industries, the need for geodetic surveys of the area increased.
The professional holiday of workers of geodesy and cartography (" Day of the surveyor ") is usually celebrated in spring, on the second Sunday of March.


Duties of the surveyor

The main job responsibilities of a surveyor are as follows:

execution of benchmarking works;
development and approval of accumulative and executive schemes, operational journals and documentation;
creation of a reference geodetic network using GPS equipment;
control over the condition of linear measuring instruments and geodetic equipment;
topographic survey using tacheometers and GPS;
construction of three-dimensional models of the surveyed area;
mathematical processing of the obtained measurements on a computer;
tracking the accuracy of the geometric parameters of the structures being built;
control over deformations and displacements of structural elements during construction.
Sometimes the tasks of the surveyor include:

airborne laser scanning using UAVs;
examination of technological and design documentation;
participation in the implementation of industry and state standards for measurement accuracy;
geodetic measurements using satellite methods.


Requirements for a surveyor

Basic requirements for a surveyor include:

secondary or higher specialized education;
work experience (1 year or more);
the ability to work with geodetic equipment, survey and process field materials;
the ability to read construction drawings;
good knowledge of methods of geodetic research and the theory of mathematical processing of measurements;
knowledge of the basics of construction production and execution of construction documentation;
knowledge of MS Office, AutoCAD, Civil 3D and other specialized programs;
experience with automation tools for topographic and geodetic works.
Sometimes you need:

work experience at road construction sites;
the ability to conduct aerial photography and build orthophotomaps;
piloting skills of various types of UAVs, including quadcopters.
Since the specialist has to work in the field and independently bear the burden , he must be in good physical shape, be hardy, unpretentious in everyday life and resistant to colds.

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